The outer layer of the epidermis provides the most effective barrier to penetration of the skin by environmental factors. Which of the following is an example of penetration by an environmental factor?

Answer Explanation: The stratum corneum, the outer layer of the epidermis, provides the most effective barrier to both epidermal water loss and penetration of environmental factors, such as chemicals, microbes, insect bites, and other trauma. Dehydration, sunburn, and excessive perspiration are not examples of penetration of an environmental factor.

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